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No True Scotsman Fallacy

Updated Mar 8, 2023

The No True Scotsman Fallacy: A Logical Pitfall Worth Understanding


In the realm of logical fallacies, one stands out as particularly intriguing and often misunderstood - the No True Scotsman fallacy. Coined by philosopher Antony Flew, this fallacy is a subtle yet powerful way to avoid conceding an argument. In this article, we will dissect the No True Scotsman fallacy, explore its implications, and provide examples to help you recognize and avoid falling into this common trap.

Understanding the Fallacy

What is the No True Scotsman Fallacy?

The No True Scotsman fallacy occurs when someone alters the definition of a term or category in order to exclude an example that contradicts their argument. It is an attempt to protect a generalization from being disproven by moving the goalposts.

Origins and Background

The term "No True Scotsman" comes from a hypothetical discussion about Scottish people and their habits. The fallacy arises when someone makes a broad generalization about all Scotsmen, like "All Scotsmen enjoy eating haggis." When presented with a counterexample, such as "But my Scottish friend doesn't like haggis," the person commits the fallacy by saying, "Well, no true Scotsman would dislike haggis."

An Example to Illustrate

Let's consider a scenario involving a debate about the behavior of politicians. Person A claims that all politicians are corrupt, while Person B objects, saying, "But what about politicians like Nelson Mandela who fought for justice and equality?" Person A then replies, "Well, Mandela doesn't count because he was a true politician."

In this example, Person A employs the No True Scotsman fallacy by conveniently excluding Nelson Mandela from the category of politicians to preserve their original claim that all politicians are corrupt.

Recognizing the Fallacy in Action

Characteristics of the No True Scotsman Fallacy

To identify the No True Scotsman fallacy, look for these key characteristics:

  1. A generalization or claim is made about a group or category.
  2. When presented with a counterexample that challenges the claim, the person modifies the definition of the group/category to exclude the counterexample.
  3. The modified definition is often ad hoc and lacks objective criteria.

Real-Life Examples

The No True Scotsman fallacy can manifest in various scenarios. Here are a few common examples:

  1. Religion: "No true Christian would ever commit such an immoral act."
  2. Sports: "Real football fans always support the same team, no matter their performance."
  3. Nationality: "True Americans are patriotic and never criticize their country."

Avoiding the Fallacy

Critical Thinking and Awareness

To avoid falling into the No True Scotsman fallacy, it is crucial to maintain critical thinking and self-awareness during arguments or debates. Here are a few practical tips:

  1. Be open to counterexamples and willing to reassess your position.
  2. Clearly define the terms and categories you are discussing.
  3. Avoid broad generalizations and recognize the diversity within groups.
  4. Seek objective criteria when making claims or judgments.

Promoting Healthy Discussions

By recognizing and avoiding the No True Scotsman fallacy, we can foster healthier and more productive discussions. Engaging in thoughtful debates that embrace diverse perspectives allows us to challenge our own beliefs and expand our understanding of complex issues.


The No True Scotsman fallacy is a compelling yet deceptive logical pitfall to be aware of. Understanding its definition, recognizing its characteristics, and actively avoiding its allure will enhance our ability to engage in meaningful discussions and arrive at more accurate conclusions. By embracing critical thinking and promoting open-mindedness, we can avoid succumbing to fallacies and cultivate a more intellectually honest society.

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