Paraphrase Tool

Incomplete Will Fallacy

Updated Jun 23, 2023

The Incomplete Will Fallacy: Don't Let Half-Truths Mislead You


In the realm of logical fallacies, one that often goes unnoticed but can have significant implications is the incomplete will fallacy. This fallacy occurs when an argument or statement is based on incomplete information or a partial truth, leading to misleading conclusions. In this article, we will explore the concept of the incomplete will fallacy, understand its implications, and learn how to identify and avoid falling victim to this deceptive reasoning.

Understanding the Incomplete Will Fallacy

The incomplete will fallacy, also known as the fallacy of incomplete evidence, arises when someone presents only a portion of the available evidence to support their argument while ignoring or omitting contradictory evidence. By selectively choosing which information to present, the person attempts to manipulate the audience's perception and lead them towards a predetermined conclusion.

Examples of the Incomplete Will Fallacy

To better understand the incomplete will fallacy, let's consider a couple of examples:

Example 1: Cherry-Picking Data

Imagine a politician who wants to convince the public that crime rates have significantly decreased in their city under their leadership. They present statistics showing a decline in petty thefts and burglaries, conveniently leaving out the fact that violent crimes have actually increased. By cherry-picking only the data that supports their claim, they create a misleading narrative that fails to provide a comprehensive view of the situation.

Example 2: Misleading Quotations

In a heated debate about climate change, someone argues that there is no scientific consensus on the issue and quotes a few researchers who express doubts about its existence. However, they conveniently omit the overwhelming consensus among the majority of scientists that supports the reality of climate change. By selectively presenting quotations, they create the illusion of a scientific debate where none truly exists.

The Implications of the Incomplete Will Fallacy

Engaging in the incomplete will fallacy can have serious consequences. By manipulating information and presenting a skewed version of reality, individuals or organizations can deceive others and influence opinions or decisions in their favor. This fallacy undermines critical thinking and rational decision-making, leading to misguided beliefs, flawed policies, and societal divisions.

Identifying and Avoiding the Incomplete Will Fallacy

To protect ourselves from falling prey to the incomplete will fallacy, we need to develop our critical thinking skills and be vigilant when evaluating arguments or statements. Here are a few strategies to help identify and avoid this fallacy:

  1. Seek a comprehensive view: When presented with an argument, actively seek out additional information and perspectives to ensure you have a complete understanding of the subject matter.

  2. Look for contradictory evidence: Be wary of arguments that only focus on supporting evidence while ignoring or dismissing contradictory facts. A robust argument should address all relevant information, even if it challenges the presented viewpoint.

  3. Fact-check and verify: Take the time to fact-check claims and verify the sources of information. Look for reliable sources that provide a balanced view and consider multiple perspectives.

  4. Be aware of biases: Understand that everyone has biases, and these biases can influence the information they choose to present. Be mindful of your own biases and strive to maintain objectivity when evaluating arguments.


The incomplete will fallacy is a deceptive logical fallacy that can lead us astray if we fail to recognize it. By understanding its nature, recognizing its presence in arguments, and adopting critical thinking strategies, we can protect ourselves from being misled by half-truths and incomplete information. Let us strive to be discerning thinkers, valuing the pursuit of truth and the importance of a complete and balanced understanding of the world around us.


About Paraphrase Tool

Getting your wording just right

Paraphrasing is a natural part of the writing process as it helps you clarify your thinking and suit your words to your audience. Using a Paraphrase Tool helps structure and streamline this work, and our paraphrase tool offers 20 modes, many of them free, for accomplishing just this. The 20 modes we offer are diverse, including a summarize tool, a free grammar checker, a mode to simplify text, and a sentence shortener. There are sentence rephrasers and paraphrase rephrase tools, and we pride ourselves on having both, since our reword generator accounts for context at both the sentence and paragraph levels.

When you google paraphrase you will get a variety of results, from a free Paraphrase Tool, to an article spinner, to a general phrase tool, and it can be hard to determine which of these rephrase tools will best help you complete your work. If you simply need to get a word rephrase, that is, reword only small elements within the sentence, many tools will suffice, but there is the risk that you end up with a tool that does not consider context and produces very awkward and ungrammatical sentences. Rephrasing is very much an art, and we’ve built our paraphrase bot to produce the most correct results in 20 modes in over 100 languages, making it the best paraphrasing tool at an exceptionally low cost. So whether you need to paraphrase deutsch, paraphrase greek, or paraphrase bahasa melayu, the next time you think, I need something to paraphrase this for me, you’ll know where to turn.

From keywords to paragraphs

Generating paragraphs with unique ideas can be challenging, and too often writers get stuck at this stage of the writing process. With our paragraph tool, you can enter keywords and let our AI generate paragraphs for you, so that you can have something to work with, refine the output, and become more engaged in your writing.

A paragraph generator creates links between your ideas, such that the output is sensible, unique, and stimulating, very close to what you would expect a thoughtful human paragraph writer to produce.

Paragraph makers are nice, but what about a short story generator? Because our AI is generalized, it serves a story generator, an essay generator, a poem generator, and much more. To generate compelling stories, you should provide the story generator with useful keywords from which it can develop plot elements, including characters, setting details, and any situational information. To generate reasonably good essays, you should likewise provide the essay maker with details around argumentative positions and any other pertinent ideas. If you more specifically want an introduction paragraph generator or conclusion paragraph generator, you can provide starter text and keywords that will best enable our essay creator to produce them.

You may well ask, “is this essay generator free?” Everything on this site is free within a 3-day trial, so you can test and develop confidence in our products. You may also be wondering where this is an essay automatic writer or if it will take a while to get results. All results appear within a matter of seconds, so you can move through your work as quickly as possible.

You may have professional needs for creating paragraphs as well, such as those needed for cover letter. Most of the time a cover letter template includes information that is not relevant to you; by using your own keywords, we can produce cover letter examples that are relevant to your use case and often require very little editing. By using this service, you can also learn how to write a cover letter and achieve the cover letter format you need.

Plagiarism checker free

Like everything else on our site, you can check plagiarism free within a trial, which is a great opportunity for those who want to check a paper for plagiarism without committing to paying before they see results. This free plagiarism checker is great for students and clearly indicates how to check for plagiarism by highlighting areas of similarity between the two texts. Just to be sure you are not accidentally plagiarizing, be sure to check all of your paraphrases as well.