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Incomplete Synthesis Fallacy

Updated Mar 11, 2023

The Incomplete Synthesis Fallacy: A Common Logical Pitfall to Avoid


In the realm of logical reasoning, fallacies are common mistakes that can mislead our thinking and lead to flawed conclusions. One such fallacy is the Incomplete Synthesis Fallacy, which occurs when someone fails to consider all relevant information or perspectives when forming an argument or drawing a conclusion. In this article, we will explore the concept of the Incomplete Synthesis Fallacy, examine its characteristics, and provide practical tips for avoiding this logical pitfall.

Understanding the Incomplete Synthesis Fallacy

The Incomplete Synthesis Fallacy, also known as the fallacy of incomplete enumeration, arises when an argument or conclusion is based on an insufficient or biased sample of evidence. It occurs when someone fails to consider all possible options, neglects relevant data, or selectively chooses evidence that supports their position while ignoring contradictory information.

This fallacy can take various forms, such as cherry-picking examples, generalizing from a limited sample, or excluding dissenting opinions. It often leads to incomplete or skewed conclusions, as important information is overlooked or dismissed, compromising the validity of the argument.

Examples of the Incomplete Synthesis Fallacy

To better grasp the concept, let's consider a few hypothetical examples:

Example 1: Selective Data Interpretation

A nutritionist claims that a particular diet is the most effective for weight loss. However, the nutritionist only presents success stories from individuals who have followed that diet, while ignoring cases where the diet failed or caused health complications. By selectively presenting favorable data, the nutritionist commits the Incomplete Synthesis Fallacy, as they fail to consider all possible outcomes.

Example 2: Failing to Consider Contradictory Evidence

A politician argues that their policies have significantly reduced crime rates in their city. However, they only present crime statistics from one district, conveniently omitting data from other areas where crime rates have increased. By ignoring contradictory evidence, the politician falls into the Incomplete Synthesis Fallacy, as they fail to consider the complete picture.

Avoiding the Incomplete Synthesis Fallacy

To steer clear of this fallacy and ensure sound reasoning, consider the following strategies:

1. Seek Diverse Perspectives

Make a conscious effort to gather different viewpoints, opinions, and data related to the topic at hand. Engage with sources that challenge your initial beliefs or present alternative evidence. By considering diverse perspectives, you expand your understanding and reduce the risk of falling into the Incomplete Synthesis Fallacy.

2. Evaluate the Sample Size

When encountering evidence or data, assess the sample size and its representativeness. Be cautious of generalizing from a limited sample, as it may not accurately reflect the larger population or context. Look for studies or research with larger sample sizes and ensure they encompass a broad range of scenarios.

3. Be Open to Contradictory Evidence

Actively seek out information that contradicts your initial assumptions or beliefs. Rather than dismissing it outright, critically evaluate the evidence and consider if it holds any validity. Being open to contradictory evidence allows for a more comprehensive analysis and helps guard against the Incomplete Synthesis Fallacy.

4. Consider the Context

Always take into account the broader context surrounding the topic or argument. Be mindful of the various factors that may influence the situation and evaluate how they may impact the validity of your conclusion. Considering the context helps avoid oversimplification and promotes a more nuanced understanding of the subject.


The Incomplete Synthesis Fallacy is a logical pitfall that can hinder our ability to reason effectively. By recognizing its characteristics and employing strategies to avoid it, we can enhance our critical thinking skills and arrive at more well-rounded and accurate conclusions. Remember to seek diverse perspectives, evaluate sample sizes, be open to contradictory evidence, and consider the context. By doing so, we can navigate the complexities of reasoning with greater precision and avoid the Incomplete Synthesis Fallacy.

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