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Incomplete Manner Fallacy

Updated Apr 11, 2023

The Incomplete Manner Fallacy: A Misleading Way of Thinking


In the realm of logical fallacies, there exists a particularly deceptive one called the "incomplete manner fallacy." This fallacy occurs when someone draws a conclusion based on incomplete information or an incomplete manner of thinking. It is a misleading way of reasoning that can easily lead to erroneous beliefs and flawed arguments. In this article, we will explore the concept of the incomplete manner fallacy, its examples, and how to recognize and avoid falling into this trap.

Understanding the Incomplete Manner Fallacy

The incomplete manner fallacy is a subset of fallacies of presumption, where a conclusion is reached without considering all relevant evidence or aspects of a situation. It occurs when someone fails to consider all possible scenarios, alternatives, or variables, leading to a flawed or biased conclusion. This fallacy can be intentional or unintentional, but in either case, it undermines the validity of the argument.

Examples of the Incomplete Manner Fallacy

To better understand the incomplete manner fallacy, let's explore a few examples commonly encountered in everyday life:

Example 1: Stereotyping

Stereotyping is a classic example of the incomplete manner fallacy. When someone makes assumptions about an entire group of people based on limited information or personal biases, they are committing this fallacy. By failing to consider the individual differences within the group, they create an incomplete and inaccurate representation.

Example 2: Hasty Generalizations

Hasty generalizations are another manifestation of the incomplete manner fallacy. It occurs when someone draws a broad conclusion based on a small sample size or isolated incidents. For instance, assuming that all politicians are corrupt because a few have been involved in scandals is an incomplete manner of thinking that fails to consider the vast majority who are honest and dedicated.

Example 3: Cherry-Picking

Cherry-picking, or selective evidence, is a common tactic used to support a biased or incomplete argument. When someone only presents evidence that supports their viewpoint while ignoring contradictory evidence, they commit the incomplete manner fallacy. By intentionally disregarding information that may provide a more accurate representation of the situation, they mislead others and weaken their own argument.

Recognizing and Avoiding the Incomplete Manner Fallacy

Now that we understand the incomplete manner fallacy and its examples, it is crucial to recognize and avoid falling into this trap. Here are a few strategies to help you steer clear of this misleading way of thinking:

1. Seek Multiple Perspectives

To avoid the incomplete manner fallacy, actively seek out different viewpoints and consider various scenarios. Engage in discussions with people who hold different opinions and be open to their perspectives. By broadening your understanding, you can avoid drawing premature conclusions.

2. Assess All Available Evidence

When forming an argument or belief, make sure to assess all available evidence objectively. Avoid cherry-picking data that aligns solely with your preconceived notions. Consider both supporting and contradicting evidence to form a more comprehensive and accurate conclusion.

3. Recognize Personal Biases

Being aware of your own biases is crucial in avoiding the incomplete manner fallacy. Take the time to reflect on your beliefs and acknowledge any potential biases that may influence your thinking. By consciously setting aside personal biases, you can approach situations with a more open and rational mindset.

4. Practice Critical Thinking

Developing critical thinking skills is essential for avoiding fallacies like the incomplete manner fallacy. Emphasize logical reasoning, analysis of evidence, and the ability to spot flawed arguments. By honing your critical thinking abilities, you will be less susceptible to falling into the trap of incomplete thinking.


The incomplete manner fallacy is a deceptive way of thinking that can lead to flawed arguments and misguided beliefs. By recognizing this fallacy and actively avoiding it, we can strengthen our reasoning skills and ensure that our conclusions are based on a comprehensive understanding of the available evidence. By seeking multiple perspectives, assessing all evidence, recognizing biases, and practicing critical thinking, we can navigate through the sea of incomplete information and arrive at more rational, well-supported conclusions.

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