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Incomplete Definition Fallacy

Updated Jul 3, 2023

Understanding the Incomplete Definition Fallacy: A Logical Pitfall to Avoid


In the realm of logical reasoning, fallacies can often hinder the clarity and validity of arguments. One such fallacy that frequently arises is the "incomplete definition fallacy." This logical pitfall occurs when an argument or statement relies on an incomplete or insufficient definition of a key term or concept. In this article, we will explore the incomplete definition fallacy, understand its implications, and learn how to avoid its traps in our own reasoning.

What is the Incomplete Definition Fallacy?

The incomplete definition fallacy, also known as the "no true Scotsman fallacy," occurs when someone attempts to redefine or modify the definition of a term or concept in order to exclude specific cases that contradict their argument. This fallacy is often used as a way to protect a claim from counterexamples or to maintain a desired narrative.

The fallacy derives its name from an example given by philosopher Antony Flew: "No true Scotsman puts sugar on his porridge." In this example, if someone points out a Scottish person who does, in fact, put sugar on their porridge, the arguer can respond by saying, "Well, no true Scotsman would do that." By modifying the definition of a "true Scotsman" to fit their argument, they conveniently dismiss any counterexamples.

Examples of the Incomplete Definition Fallacy

To further illustrate this fallacy, let's consider a couple of examples:

Example 1: Veganism and the Incomplete Definition

Argument: "Vegans are people who never consume or use any animal products. Therefore, if you eat honey, you cannot be a true vegan."

Counterargument: "But there are many vegans who consume honey and still identify as vegans."

Fallacy: In this instance, the arguer attempts to redefine veganism by excluding the consumption of honey. However, many vegans do consume honey and consider themselves to be true vegans. By asserting an incomplete definition of veganism, the arguer disregards counterexamples that challenge their argument.

Example 2: The True Fan Fallacy

Argument: "A true fan of a sports team always supports the team, win or lose. Therefore, if you criticize the team's performance, you cannot be a real fan."

Counterargument: "Criticism can come from a place of love and a desire to see the team improve. It doesn't make someone any less of a fan."

Fallacy: Here, the arguer manipulates the definition of a "true fan" by excluding any form of criticism. By doing so, they dismiss the legitimacy of constructive criticism and fail to acknowledge that being a true fan can involve holding the team to high standards.

Avoiding the Incomplete Definition Fallacy

To avoid falling into the trap of the incomplete definition fallacy, it is crucial to define terms and concepts accurately and consistently. Here are some strategies to employ:

  1. Clearly define key terms: Ensure that the definitions of the terms you use in your arguments are comprehensive and inclusive, leaving no room for ambiguity or arbitrary exclusions.

  2. Acknowledge counterexamples: Be open to considering counterexamples that challenge your argument. Instead of modifying definitions to fit your narrative, critically evaluate whether your argument can withstand these counterexamples.

  3. Engage in constructive dialogue: Encourage discussions where different perspectives and interpretations can be explored. By engaging in thoughtful conversations, you can refine your understanding of concepts and avoid the pitfalls of incomplete definitions.


The incomplete definition fallacy is a common logical pitfall that can undermine the strength and validity of arguments. By understanding this fallacy, being aware of its presence, and employing strategies to avoid it, we can enhance our logical reasoning skills and engage in more robust discussions. Remember, it is crucial to define terms accurately, consider counterexamples, and maintain an open mind when constructing and evaluating arguments.

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