Paraphrase Tool

Incomplete Condition Fallacy

Updated Feb 27, 2023

The Incomplete Condition Fallacy: A Common Logical Pitfall

Have you ever been caught in a situation where you made a decision based on incomplete or insufficient information? We've all been there. The human mind has a tendency to jump to conclusions and make judgments without considering all the relevant facts. This cognitive bias is known as the "incomplete condition fallacy," and it can lead to poor decision-making and flawed reasoning.

Understanding the Incomplete Condition Fallacy

The incomplete condition fallacy occurs when someone draws a conclusion or makes a judgment based on a limited or partial set of information, neglecting other crucial factors that could significantly impact the situation. This fallacy is often fueled by our inherent cognitive biases, such as confirmation bias or availability bias, which influence us to rely on readily available or confirming evidence rather than seeking out a comprehensive view.

To illustrate this fallacy, let's consider a hypothetical scenario. Imagine you are a hiring manager reviewing job applications. You receive two resumes, and while one candidate has a stellar educational background, the other has a few years of relevant work experience. Based on this incomplete information, you may be tempted to assume that the candidate with the impressive education is the better fit for the job. However, this assumption neglects other essential aspects like the candidate's interpersonal skills, adaptability, or problem-solving abilities, which could be better assessed through an interview or reference checks.

The Dangers of the Incomplete Condition Fallacy

Engaging in the incomplete condition fallacy can have significant consequences. From personal decisions to professional judgments, this fallacy can lead to faulty reasoning and flawed outcomes. Here are a few dangers associated with this cognitive bias:

1. Missed Opportunities

By relying solely on partial information, you risk missing out on valuable opportunities or dismissing options that could have been beneficial. Failing to consider all relevant factors can limit your ability to make informed decisions and explore alternative perspectives.

2. Biased Conclusions

The incomplete condition fallacy often reinforces our existing biases, leading to biased conclusions. When we selectively focus on certain information, we tend to favor evidence that confirms our preconceived notions while ignoring contradictory or less readily available data. This bias can hinder adopting a more objective and rational approach to decision-making.

3. Poor Problem-Solving

When we base our decisions on incomplete information, we are more likely to encounter problems and obstacles along the way. Neglecting crucial factors can result in suboptimal solutions or ineffective strategies, hampering our ability to overcome challenges effectively.

Overcoming the Incomplete Condition Fallacy

Awareness is the first step towards overcoming the incomplete condition fallacy. By recognizing this cognitive bias, we can actively work to mitigate its impact on our decision-making processes. Here are a few strategies to consider:

1. Seek Additional Information

To combat the incomplete condition fallacy, make a conscious effort to gather more information before arriving at a conclusion. Ask questions, conduct research, and consult various sources to ensure you have a comprehensive understanding of the situation.

2. Challenge Assumptions

Question your own assumptions and biases when making judgments. Be open to different perspectives and consider alternative viewpoints that may provide a more complete picture. Engaging in critical thinking and actively challenging your own initial conclusions can help you avoid falling into the trap of incomplete reasoning.

3. Consider Multiple Variables

Remember that decisions are rarely black and white. Take into account a range of variables and factors that could influence the outcome. This holistic approach helps prevent overlooking critical aspects and allows for a more thorough evaluation of the situation.

4. Engage in Collaborative Decision-Making

Involve others in the decision-making process, especially those with diverse backgrounds and perspectives. Collaborative decision-making can help counteract individual biases and ensure a more comprehensive analysis of the available information.


The incomplete condition fallacy is a common cognitive bias that can hinder our ability to make well-informed decisions. By understanding its pitfalls and actively working to overcome this fallacy, we can improve our critical thinking skills and enhance the quality of our decision-making processes. Remember, seeking out complete information, challenging assumptions, considering multiple variables, and engaging in collaborative decision-making are key strategies to avoid falling into the trap of the incomplete condition fallacy.

About Paraphrase Tool

Getting your wording just right

Paraphrasing is a natural part of the writing process as it helps you clarify your thinking and suit your words to your audience. Using a Paraphrase Tool helps structure and streamline this work, and our paraphrase tool offers 20 modes, many of them free, for accomplishing just this. The 20 modes we offer are diverse, including a summarize tool, a free grammar checker, a mode to simplify text, and a sentence shortener. There are sentence rephrasers and paraphrase rephrase tools, and we pride ourselves on having both, since our reword generator accounts for context at both the sentence and paragraph levels.

When you google paraphrase you will get a variety of results, from a free Paraphrase Tool, to an article spinner, to a general phrase tool, and it can be hard to determine which of these rephrase tools will best help you complete your work. If you simply need to get a word rephrase, that is, reword only small elements within the sentence, many tools will suffice, but there is the risk that you end up with a tool that does not consider context and produces very awkward and ungrammatical sentences. Rephrasing is very much an art, and we’ve built our paraphrase bot to produce the most correct results in 20 modes in over 100 languages, making it the best paraphrasing tool at an exceptionally low cost. So whether you need to paraphrase deutsch, paraphrase greek, or paraphrase bahasa melayu, the next time you think, I need something to paraphrase this for me, you’ll know where to turn.

From keywords to paragraphs

Generating paragraphs with unique ideas can be challenging, and too often writers get stuck at this stage of the writing process. With our paragraph tool, you can enter keywords and let our AI generate paragraphs for you, so that you can have something to work with, refine the output, and become more engaged in your writing.

A paragraph generator creates links between your ideas, such that the output is sensible, unique, and stimulating, very close to what you would expect a thoughtful human paragraph writer to produce.

Paragraph makers are nice, but what about a short story generator? Because our AI is generalized, it serves a story generator, an essay generator, a poem generator, and much more. To generate compelling stories, you should provide the story generator with useful keywords from which it can develop plot elements, including characters, setting details, and any situational information. To generate reasonably good essays, you should likewise provide the essay maker with details around argumentative positions and any other pertinent ideas. If you more specifically want an introduction paragraph generator or conclusion paragraph generator, you can provide starter text and keywords that will best enable our essay creator to produce them.

You may well ask, “is this essay generator free?” Everything on this site is free within a 3-day trial, so you can test and develop confidence in our products. You may also be wondering where this is an essay automatic writer or if it will take a while to get results. All results appear within a matter of seconds, so you can move through your work as quickly as possible.

You may have professional needs for creating paragraphs as well, such as those needed for cover letter. Most of the time a cover letter template includes information that is not relevant to you; by using your own keywords, we can produce cover letter examples that are relevant to your use case and often require very little editing. By using this service, you can also learn how to write a cover letter and achieve the cover letter format you need.

Plagiarism checker free

Like everything else on our site, you can check plagiarism free within a trial, which is a great opportunity for those who want to check a paper for plagiarism without committing to paying before they see results. This free plagiarism checker is great for students and clearly indicates how to check for plagiarism by highlighting areas of similarity between the two texts. Just to be sure you are not accidentally plagiarizing, be sure to check all of your paraphrases as well.