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Incomplete Argument Fallacy

Updated Jun 14, 2023

The Incomplete Argument Fallacy: Recognizing and Avoiding Logical Pitfalls


In the realm of critical thinking and logical reasoning, it is essential to be aware of the various fallacies that can lead us astray from sound and rational arguments. One such fallacy is the incomplete argument fallacy. In this blog article, we will explore the concept of the incomplete argument fallacy, understand its implications, and learn how to identify and avoid this logical pitfall.

Understanding the Incomplete Argument Fallacy

The incomplete argument fallacy, also known as the incomplete comparison fallacy, occurs when an argument is based on a partial or incomplete set of evidence or information. It is a type of fallacy that relies on presenting a one-sided or biased perspective, which can skew the conclusion and mislead the audience.

Examples of Incomplete Argument Fallacy

To better grasp the concept, let us consider a few examples of the incomplete argument fallacy:

Example 1: Cherry-Picking Data

A company claims that their product is the best in the market based on customer reviews, but only shows the positive reviews and excludes any negative feedback. By cherry-picking data, they present an incomplete argument, omitting crucial information that could provide a more balanced assessment of their product's quality.

Example 2: False Dichotomy

A political debate centers around two candidates, with one arguing that their opponent's policies will lead to economic ruin, while ignoring any potential benefits. By presenting a false dichotomy, this incomplete argument fails to acknowledge the complexity of the issue and disregards alternative perspectives and solutions.

Identifying and Avoiding the Incomplete Argument Fallacy

Recognizing the incomplete argument fallacy is crucial to maintaining logical integrity in discussions and debates. Here are some tips for identifying and avoiding this fallacy:

  1. Seek a comprehensive view: When presented with an argument, question whether all relevant information and perspectives have been considered. Look for any missing or omitted evidence that might significantly impact the conclusion.

  2. Evaluate the sources: Examine the sources of information used in the argument. Consider whether they are reputable, unbiased, and provide a balanced perspective. Be wary of selectively choosing sources that align with a particular viewpoint.

  3. Look for counterarguments: Pay attention to any counterarguments or alternative explanations that are missing from the presented argument. An incomplete argument often fails to address opposing viewpoints or acknowledge potential weaknesses in its reasoning.

  4. Consider the context: Assess whether the argument takes into account the broader context of the issue at hand. Incomplete arguments tend to oversimplify complex problems, ignoring interconnected factors and potential consequences.


The incomplete argument fallacy is a common logical pitfall that can lead us astray from rational and well-supported conclusions. By recognizing this fallacy and actively avoiding it, we can enhance our critical thinking skills and engage in more constructive and intellectually honest discussions. Remember to seek a comprehensive view, evaluate sources, consider counterarguments, and always keep the broader context in mind. By doing so, we can navigate through the sea of incomplete arguments and arrive at more reasoned and informed conclusions.

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